What is quantization error and how does signal to noise relate to this?
Quantization error is the difference between the analog signal and the closest available digital value at each sampling instant from the A/D converter. Quantization error also introduces noise, called quantization noise, to the sample signal. The higher the resolution of the A/D converter, the lower the quantization error and the smaller the quantization noise. The relationship between resolution (in bits) and quantization noise for an ideal A/D converter can be expressed as Signal to Noise (S/N) = -20*log (1/2^n) where n is the resolution of the A/D converter in bits. S/N is the signal to noise and is expressed in dB. This relationship can also be approximated as S/N = 6*n. Typical S/N ratios for ideal A/D converters are 96dB for 16 bits, 72dB for 12 bits, and 48dB for 8 bits.
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